The development of new vaccines and therapeutic antibodies forms only a small part of what can be carried out in the field of Cellular Immunology with SYNENTEC's automated cell imagers.

SYNENTEC's high-throughput imaging systems CELLAVISTA® and NYONE® support your work in various fields of immunological research. Our automated cell imagers support your research with high resolution imaging in brightfield and various fluorescence channels combined with automated image cytometry software.

IHC Colon Cancer Slice
  • Humoral Immune Response (Antigen-antibody-reaction, IgG antibodies, Lymphycytes, Adapted Immune Answer, siRNA screening of pathogen responses…)
  • Infectiology (e.g. studying Trojan Horse Mechanism)
  • Immune Deficiencies (Allergies, Autoimmune Diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus Type I, Hashimoto Thyreoides, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Celiac Disease, AIDS…)
  • Vaccine Development
  • Immuno Cyto Chemistry (CD-marker Detection ...)
  • Therapeutic antibodies (Cancer Therapy…)
  • Reproductive Immunology


Take a look at all the comprehensive possibilities below:

Immuno Cyto Chemistry (ICC/IHC) – Multicolor Cell Analysis

[Virtual Cytoplasm 2F]


By immunocytochemistry, proteins or other structures can be made visible with labeled antibodies. If the antibodies are labeled with common fluorescent dyes, these markers can be analyzed with SYNENTEC's cell imagers. Furthermore a detection of immunoprecipitation (e.g. with HRP and DAB reagent) can also easily be performed.

Using ICC/IHC, it can be determined for example, in which tissue a target protein is present (e.g. tumor analysis) or in which compartment of the cell it is localized.

For antibody staining fixed tissue and cells can be used, but also live-cell staining is measurable with our cell imagers NYONE® und CELLAVISTA®.

Our fluorescence detection is very sensitive so that even weak stained antigens can be detected and the YT-image processing software® can even analyze the labeled cells unwashed samples with a high fluorescent background signal.

Extract from the software readout (for further information look at ShortNote Virtual Cytoplasm 2F)

  • total # of Cells
  • % of Nuclei stained Cells
  • % of Nuclei and AB-stained Cells

CD Marker – Immunological Staining Of Cluster Of Differentiation

[Antibody binding]


Cluster of differentiation (CD) are a large family of cell surface markers. The differentiation is conducted by functional and biochemical criteria. Their localization on the cell surface explains their main functions as cell adhesion proteins, signal transducer, receptors, activators, apoptosis initiators etc. and enables an easy immunological staining on living cells.

Since the CD markers are very cell type specific, there is a lot of ongoing research involved in the development of antibodies (AB) against CD-markers expressed by pathological cells. A good example is the monoclonal AB against B-cell marker CD20, which applies in B-cell derived lymphomas and leukemia but also in B-cell mediated autoimmune disorders.

To check the fluorescence filter specifications of our systems visit the Fluorescence Viewer.

Extract from the software readout for suspension cells (for further information look at ShortNote Antibody binding)

  • # of objects
  • Mean size of objects
  • Mean intensity of objects
  • Total fluorescence per well

siRNA Quantification - a wide Range of Possibilities

[Nuclei Dot-co-localization (1F)]

siRNA detection knockdown gene silencing quantification

The development of a cell system for the siRNA screening of pathogen responses in human and mouse macrophages plays a crucial role in the study of the innate immune response to pathogen infections.

With such a cell platforms for high-throughput analysis of macrophage siRNA activation one can achieve maximum mismatch of target genes in these systems with minimal activation of the innate macrophage response to nucleic acids.

Also in the field of stem cell research, highly efficient transfections and siRNA-mediated gene knockdowns in human pluripotent stem cells are getting more and more in the focus of science. In addition, siRNA appears to be a promising tool for future cancer therapies.

With its scientific product line of CELLAVISTA® and NYONE®, SYNENTEC offers highly sensitive platforms for high-resolution siRNA imaging and for quantification of siRNA distribution and cell modification.

Extract from the software readout for suspension cells (for further information look at ShortNote Nuclei Dot-co-localization (1F))

  • # of nuclei
  • # of nuclei-siRNA positiv
  • Nuclei-siRNA positiv [%]
  • Mean intensity of siRNA-dots

Viral plaque Assay – Influence Of Viruses

[Plaque Assay]


The viral plaque assay is a method for the detection and quantitation of infectious cytopathic virus particles which are added in different dilutions across a multiwell plate containing confluent cell layers.

The difficulty is to find lysed cell areas between a confluent cell monolayer - the plaque center may miss out cells due to virus-induced lysis.

The high-resolution, precision optics of SYNENTEC's cell imagers is very well suited for this type of virus analysis. Especially for a standardized and ultra fast evaluation of this assay SYNENTEC developed the viral plaque operator.

Extract from the software readout (for further information look at ShortNote Plaque Assay)

  • # of Plaques
  • Plaque Area [%]
  • Average Plaque size [µm2]

Focus Forming Assay – Virus Titer Quantitation

[Dark spots]


The focus forming assay (FFA) is an immunostaining technique and a variation of the viral plaque assay. Instead of detecting the plaque formation after virus-induced cell lysis these assays detect infected host cells and infectious virus particles before a plaque is formed.

Different cell monolayer samples were infected with a serial dilution of the virus of interest. After incubating the samples overnight the host cells built clusters of infected cells which could be visualized with specific horse radish peroxidase (HRP) coupled antibodies against a viral antigen.

The HRP can oxidize with the 3-3’diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) which results in  brown/black insoluble precipitates. These foci were visualized with the brightfield illumination and the number of foci was quantified with our YT-image analysis software®.

Extract from the software readout (for further information look at ShortNote Dark Spots)

  • # of Foci
  • mean Foci Size
  • total Confluence
  • % Foci covered Area

Cell Proliferation – Keep An Eye On It

[Confluence – Suspension Cell Count]


Confluence monitoring is a useful tool to determine various properties of your cell line. SYNENTEC’s confluence image processing analysis is capable to solve a vast range of different questions – e.g. to monitor the growth rate under selective conditions or to prove toxicity by adding an antibody and monitor the growth rate over different concentrations as a first step of proving the influence on the cell type of interest.

With SYNENTEC’s automated cell culture microscopes NYONE® and CELLAVISTA® and the included YT-image analysis software® the proliferation analysis is possible for a variety of cells. Adherent lines can be detected as well as suspension cells. In addition, it is very easy to quantify additional fluorescent labels and their ratio to the total growth area.

Extract from the software readout for adherent cells (for further information look at ShortNote Confluence / Confluence 1F)

  • % Confluence BF
  • % Confluence FL
  • % Ratio of Confluence BF/FL

Extract from the software readout for suspension cells (for further information look at ShortNote Suspension Cell Count / Suspension Cell Count 1F)

  • Cell Density / mL
  • # of Cells in Brightfield
  • # of Cells in Fluorescence
  • # of Cells Brightfield AND Fluorescence

IgG-Quantitation – Sometimes Less Means More



During the cell line development process hundreds to thousands of clones have to be screened to find the most promising, i.e. well growing clones that are also good producers for further development. The process of single cell cloning is usually performed in 96-well formats and increasingly also in 384-well plates. Thus, there is limited sample volume available for analysis and it is desirable to get the results as quickly as possible.

PAIA BIOTECH has taken on this challenge and their scientific team has developed a new ultra-fast-low-volume assay for IgG-quantification directly from the supernatant of the culture vessel!

Assay Principle

Protein A coated capture beads, analyte and fluorescence markers are incubated in the wells of a 384-well PAIAplate. After sedimentation of the beads with the bound analyte-marker-complexes, the remaining unbound fluorescence marker is measured with the NYONE® or CELLAVISTA®.



  • High throughput in 384 well plates
    • processing time for full plate  < 1 hour
  • Low sample consumption
    • 2- 10 µL of crude sample
  • Simple protocols in single-use plates
    • no washing , no blocking, no regeneration
  • Cost-efficient (No Capex)
    • runs on fluorescence microscopes

Software readout

PAIA Biotech has developed a software tool for the rapid generation of calibration curves, calculation of sample concentrations and result exports. The data generated with our YT-analysis software® can be exported as csv-files and can be imported into PAIAs software tool.


Did not find what you need? Then also visit the comprehensive Drugs & Cancer, Cell Line Development or the Stem Cells area of this homepage.